Sirius itself has a mass two times that of the Sun and a diameter of 1.5 million miles (2.4 million kilometers). At 8.6 light-years away, Sirius is one of the nearest known stars to Earth.
With slightly more than twice the mass of the sun and just less than twice its diameter, Sirius still puts out 26 times as much energy. It's a main-sequence star, meaning it produces most of its energy by converting hydrogen into helium through nuclear fusion.
Sirius A has a diameter of about 1.5 million mi / 2.4 million km, almost 171% of the Sun's diameter. Sirius B, on the other hand, has a diameter of 7.300 mi / 11.800 km, approximatively 92% of Earth's diameter. Sirius A is about 25 times brighter than our Sun, while Sirius B is only 3% as bright as the sun.
By modeling the evolution of a star with Sirius A's mass, the astronomers find the star achieves its current luminosity and diameter 225 to 250 million years after birth. This age means Sirius has completed just one orbit around the galaxy. In contrast, the Sun is 4.6 billion years old — 20 times older.
17.671 million kmArcturus/Radius
Sirius has a luminosity 25.4 times greater than the sun, but, because it is 8.6 light years away, its apparent brightness is 12 billion times less than that of the sun. For the sun to appear as dim as Sirius, it would need to be moved 1.7 light years away.
Barnard's Star has a mass of about 0.14 solar masses ( M ☉), and a radius 0.2 times that of the Sun. Thus, although Barnard's Star has roughly 150 times the mass of Jupiter ( M J), its radius is only roughly 2 times larger, due to its much higher density.
8.005 million yearsRigel/AgeRigel has been estimated to be just 8 million years old and has already depleted its supply of hydrogen at its core. As time passes by, Rigel will expand to an even greater size transcending into a red supergiant. The star may eventually explode as a supernova.
Sirius appears bright because of its intrinsic luminosity and its proximity to the Solar System. It is 25 times as luminous as the Sun, but has a significantly lower luminosity than other bright stars such as Canopus or Rigel.
While B is twice as hot as the primary (Sirius A), its very small size makes it much less bright. Sirius B's luminosity is about 10,000 times lesser than Sirius A's.
Therefore, it appears that Barnard's Star indeed does not host Earth-mass planets, or larger, in hot and temperate orbits, unlike other M-dwarf stars that commonly have these type of planets in close-in orbits.
The French mathematician and astronomer Jean-Baptiste Morin observed Arcturus in the daytime with a telescope in 1635, a first for any star other than the Sun and supernovae. Arcturus has been seen at or just before sunset with the naked eye.
7.105 billion yearsArcturus/Age
When Arcturus' supply of hydrogen was fully depleted, it transitioned into its red giant status and astronomers believe it is now fusing helium into carbon in its core instead (which helps explain why it shines brightly and produces so much heat).
In other words, Barnard's Star is much dimmer and cooler than our sun. If it replaced the sun in our solar system, it would shine only about four ten-thousandths as brightly as our sun. At the same time, it would be about 100 times brighter than a full moon.
8.611 light yearsSirius/Distance to Earth
The closest system is Alpha Centauri, with Proxima Centauri as the closest system star at 4.25 light-years from Earth. The brightest among these systems, as well as the brightest in Earth's night sky, is Sirius.
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