Back in Dragon Ball Z, Gohan managed to surpass Goku when he became the first Super Saiyan 2 in history during the fight with Cell. With a bit more training, he definitely has the potential to surpass Goku, but then again, with Ultra Instinct under his belt, Goku will always be in a different league.
At this point in time Gohan had a brief power level of 1,307 while Goku had a peak power level of 924. Goku would soon be stronger than Gohan's peak through training with King Kai in otherworld.
1 GOHAN: CAN SURPASS From the start of Dragon Ball Z series, it was shown that Goku's son, Son Gohan, had the potential to surpass his father. It has since been changed from being the focus but Gohan is still continuously teased to have the ability to surpass his father's power.
It was stated by Piccolo that with them gone, Gohan is the strongest person on Earth. Considering that Piccolo observed the performances of both fighters in the Tournament of Power, this serves as confirmation that Gohan is indeed stronger than Android 17.
1 Mystic Gohan This is the strongest form Gohan has been able to achieve up to date. After being defeated by Majin Buu and being on the brink of death, he was brought back to the world of the Kais and trained using the Z Sword.
Gohan has very high potential but I think it's second to Broly's potential. It took gohan 48 hours to compete with ssb Goku but it took broly only minutes to surpass two ssb at the same time so this puts broly above gohan in potential.
Gohan has been training with Piccolo since RoF which was a year before the Tournament of Power in-canon. It's just that we only really saw the last day of that pre-ToP training when Gohan finally unlocked his Ultimate form again and then he had an more training past that to make him Blue-tier.
There's no debate that the Mastered Ultra Instinct is Goku's strongest form as of 2021. It's established as more powerful than Super Saiyan Blue, Super Saiyan Blue Kaioken, and Super Saiyan Blue Evolved.
1:084:03Why Gohan Hates Goku - YouTubeYouTube
Simply put, Ultimate Gohan is the character's most powerful form, dramatically stronger than other established Saiyan transformations including Super Saiyan 3 and Super Saiyan God.
It is a form that surpasses previously established Super Saiyan forms, even allowing Gohan to go toe-to-toe with Goku at Super Saiyan Blue, and yet, it is perhaps the most undefined Saiyan transformation in the entire franchise.
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